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The advantage of using an Arduino board is that it uses an open-source platform. The schematics of the board can be downloaded easily. You will be needing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to write programs into the board.
The Arduino Uno R3 is one of the basic boards of Arduino. All of the essential utilities are inside the Arduino Uno R3, making it perfect for beginners.
The microcontroller used is an ATmega328. The Arduino Uno R3 has 20 digital pins, 6 of these pins can be used as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and 6 other pins can be used as analog inputs. It has a 2.1mm center-positive plug for power and uses a B-type USB connection to upload programs.
You will be needing an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) to write programs into the board. For alternative programming interfaces, the in-circuit system programming or ICSP header can also be used. If you would need the schematics of the Arduino Uno R3, it can be downloaded easily.
One of the advatages of using an Arduino board is that it uses an open-source platform. Which also means that this board has a massive support community which you can access through arduino.cc/forum.
12v In, 5v In